Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a fairly common condition in which the hormone balance affecting women of reproductive age is disrupted. It occurs in 5-12% of women. An imbalance and structural difference is observed in the hormone production of the ovaries involved in the production of estrogen and progesterone.
There are many small cysts in the ovaries, and they are larger than normal ovaries in terms of volume. The syndrome is named so because "polycystic" means a large number of cysts.
PCOS has 3 main findings:
- Ovaries with polycystic appearance
- Irregular period
- Signs of male hormone (androgen) levels being higher than expected or androgen excess (hirsutism, acne, hair loss)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / PCOS Causes
Although the exact cause of polycystic ovary syndrome is unknown, research shows that there is more than one factor in the emergence of the disease. These were as listed below:
Studies reveal that familial predisposition is among the causes of PCOS.
Insulin resistance is observed in 70 percent of PCOS patients. Insulin resistance is a condition in which cells are resistant to insulin, so the body has to produce higher levels of insulin. A vicious cycle also occurs because high insulin levels cause the ovaries to produce more androgen.
Obesity is one of the main risk factors for insulin resistance. Both obesity and insulin resistance increase the risk of future type 2 diabetes. Therefore, weight loss is in the first place in the to-do list of PCOS patients with excess weight.
Increased inflammation is observed in the bodies of PCOS patients. Excess weight is also a condition that contributes to an increase in inflammation. Therefore, polycystic ovary studies due to excess weight, insulin resistance, and inflammation have also shown the link between excess inflammation and androgen elevation.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / PCOS Symptoms
- Menstrual irregularity (usually menstruation at long intervals –oligomenorrhea)
- Excessive bleeding
- Increased body hair (hirsutism)
- Acne (pimples)
- Weight gain
- Male pattern hair loss
- Skin darkening
Possible Results of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / PCOS
This hormonal disorder can have some unintended consequences that reduce the quality of life:
It is necessary to ovulate in order for women to conceive. Infertility may occur in polycystic ovary syndrome because of the ovulation problem. Therefore, PCOS is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. On the other hand, this problem can be dealt with.
80% of PCOS patients are overweight or obese. Both obesity and PCOS increase the risk of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, low HDL (good cholesterol), and high LDL (bad cholesterol). All of these factors are called "metabolic syndrome". This increases the risk of heart attack, diabetes, and stroke.
It is the intermittent cessation of breathing during sleep. This can cause deterioration in sleep quality and many conditions from hypertension to distraction. Sleep apnea is a frequent problem in PCOS and overweight women.
It is a cancer of the inner wall of the endometrium, also called uterine cancer. This tissue grows due to estrogen. Due to the ovulation problem in PCOS patients, there is a continuous estrogen release problem. This increases the risk of endometrial cancer.
Depression and anxiety are more common in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to the normal population.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / PCOS Treatment
The first stage of treatment in polycystic ovary syndrome is diet, sports, and lifestyle change. Even a weight loss of around 5-10 percent in women allows for improvement in menstruation patterns and regression in other PCOS findings. Research shows that low-carb diets are useful in weight loss and in breaking down insulin resistance.
After diet and lifestyle changes, medication is usually done using birth control pills (anti-androgens) and antidiabetic medication.
PCOS patients who have infertility problems can be treated at the IVF Center.
Treatment and follow-up of patients with other problems such as hirsutism (excessive hair) acne and hair loss are carried out in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hirsutism Clinic.
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